Unit 4 Interdependence

Chapter 10 The Non Living Environment

Section 1 Abiotic Factors

Section 2 Cycles in Nature

Section 3 Energy Flow

Chapter 11 Ecosystems

Section 1 How Ecosystems change

Section 2 Biomes

Section 3 Aquatic Ecosystems





                              Be able to answer the Essential Question

     at the end of your reading and definitely at the conclusion of studying for an exam


     think about answering the essential question as you continue to deposit more

                             information into your bank

--- Essential Question ---


(of Unit 4 – Chapters 10 & 11)


How is Interdependence Essential to Maintaining Life on Earth?

(Can you even understand the question? Maybe you should break it down to easier terms to begin to figure out where you are and where you need to go.)

Ray from Class 606 helped me to begin how figure out the word interdependence.

He said, “ I think about the word interdependence,

I see the word independent and I see the word dependent”.

I also see the prefix inter, such as in intermural and I can begin to understand better.

He then went on to explain what each word meant

and after discussion, he thought thru what Interdependence means.

Wow - This is really big stuff !

                 Thanks Ray !






“Your Goals Chapter 10” 
(there are 9 goals for Chapter 10)

(A Goal - What you should be able to do with the knowledge gained from each section)

You should ask yourself “Can I ……..?


Section 1 – Abiotic factors

1.   Identify common abiotic factors in most ecosystems

2.   List the components of air that are needed for life

3.   Explain how climate influences life in an ecosystem

Section 2 – Cycles in nature

4.   Explain the importance of Earth’s water cycle

5.   Diagram the carbon cycle

6.   Recognize the role of nitrogen in life on Earth

Section 3 – Energy flow

7.   Explain how organisms produce energy- rich compounds

8.   Describe the energy flows through an ecosystem

9.   Recognize how much energy is available at different levels in the food chain



Some Advise for Chapter 10:

Don’t get hung up memorizing the details of the carbon and nitrogen cycle.

Just understand the big picture such as:  What is happening? How is it good? What would happen if it stopped?

Definitely own and learn the water cycle – all the terms and understand the process!


“Your Goals Chapter 11” 
(there are 9 goals for Chapter 11)

(A Goal - What you should be able to do with the knowledge gained from each section)

You should ask yourself “Can I ……..?


Section 1 – How Ecosystems Change

1. Explain how ecosystems change over time

2. Describe how new communities begin in areas without life

3. Compare pioneer communities and climax communities

Section 2 – Biomes

4. Explain how climate influences land environments

5. Identify seven biomes of Earth

6. Describe the adaptations of organisms found in each biome

Section 3 – Aquatic Ecosystems

7. Compare flowing freshwater and standing freshwater ecosystems

8. Identify and describe important saltwater ecosystems

9. Identify problems that affect aquatic ecosystems








First, Review of Main Ideas of Chapter 10

Section 1 -– Abiotic factors

1. Abiotic factors include:

Air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature, and climate

                              2. The availability of water and light influences (tells, rules, dictates) where life exists on Earth

                                        Such as – if there is lots of water – there will be plenty of life – think oceans, rivers, forests

                                                            If there is very little water there will probably be  a lot less life – think in deserts (ie death valley!)

                              Such as if there is plenty of light there will be lots of living things – think coral reefs at the top of the ocean

                                                                                and if there is not a lot of light there won’t be much life – as in the deep dark areas of the ocean or deep in caves

                                 Why? No light or water – no microscopic plants – no food chain or a very limited food web

                              3. Soil and climate have an important influence on the types of organisms that can survive in these different environments

                                        wow – no brainer – think penguins vs lions, can you imagine a giraffe living in the polar ice cap, or a cow surviving in the desert?


Section 2 – Cycles in Nature

1.     matter is limited on earth and there is recycled through the environment

2.     the water cycle involves evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

3.     the carbon cycle involves photosynthesis and respiration – some big words here but you’ve already dealt with this stuff – don’t get flustered

                                                                                                     i.     one one and thought at a time here – take it slow and easy – you can do this

4.     Nitrogen in the form of soil compounds enters plants, which then are consumed by other organisms –

                                                                                                     i.     Hey – I know that – how many times can they say the same thing – maybe its important


Section 3 – Energy Flow  (what again – didn’t we do that as food chains? Yup – just a variation and a twist)

1.     Producers make energy rich molecules through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis (– big deal – know that already)

                                                                                                     i.     (Yeah but this time we need some deeper understanding – this is really the good stuff about interdependence)

2.     When organisms feed on other organisms they obtain matter and energy (– think about it – tell me some things from your real life that you know)

3.     Matter can be recycled but energy cannot.( – this is a new thought – a bit different then we have heard before – explain)

4.     Food webs are models (remember we studied models early on – like long ago) of complex feeding relationships in communities.

5.     Available energy decreases as you go to higher feeding levels on the energy pyramid


Review of Main Ideas of Chapter 11

Section 1 –How Ecosystems Change

1. Ecological succession is the gradual change from one plant community to another.

                              2. Primary succession begins in a place where no plants were before.

                              3. Secondary succession begins in a place that has soil and was once the home for living things.

4. A climax community has reached a stable stage of ecological succession.


Section 2 – Biomes

1.     Temperature and precipitation help determine the climate of a region.

2.     Large geographic areas with similar climax communities are called biomes.

3.     Earth’s land biomes include tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, tropical rain forest, grassland, and desert.


Section 3 – Aquatic Ecosystems

1.     Freshwater ecosystems include streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and wetlands

2.     Wetlands are areas that are covered with water most of the year. They are found in regions that lie between land-masses and water.

3.     Saltwater ecosystems include estuaries, seashores, coral reefs, and few inland lakes and the deep ocean

4.  Estuaries are fertile transitional zones between freshwater and saltwater environments.



Concentrate on the stuff above and your simple easy reworded definitions on your foldables, posters, hw

Always remember to do the online quizzes in Glencoe Online – if you still can’t find them – write me!