Chap 10 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table

 

This page contains:

I.         Test Review Info (whichwill have material added)

II.     A skeletal outline of the chapter (which also will be added to)

 

I.              Test Review Info

Understand that:

In atoms the number of protons equals the number of electrons

When you name an isotope:

††††††† ††††††††††††††† Such as chlorine - 35 or

††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††† ††chlorine - 37

the number 35 and 37 refers to the number of neutrons in the nucleus

Name

Atomic #

Symbol

Atomic mass

 
 


 
If looking at an elementís symbol in the periodic table:

be able to figure out:

the name of the element,

†††††††††††† †††††††††† the atomic number, ,

the atomic mass

which of the three main types it is (metal, metalloid, non-metal),

what state of matter it is.

Be able to explain:

what the atomic number is

what an atomic mass is

The difference between matter and energy

 

 

Know the naming of substances: such as

††††††††††††††††††††††† CO†† =carbon monoxide,

††††††††††††††††††††††† CO2†† = †††carbon dioxide

†††††††† †††††††††††††† †††C††††† =†† carbon

†††††††††† †††††††††††† †††O††††† =†† oxygen

 

Be able to identify and explain why something is :

Mixture types (homogenous, heterogeneous)

†††††††††††††††††††††† Compounds

††††††††††††††††††††††† Elements

††††††††††††††††††††††† Pure substances

††††††††††††††††††††††† Isotopes

II.          Skeletal Outline

 

3 sections

1. The Structure of Matter

2. The Simplest Matter

3. Compounds & Mixtures

 

 

1. The Structure of Matter

††††††† Matter††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Nucleus

††††††††††† Atom†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Proton

††††††††††† Law of conservation of matter Neutron

††††††††††† Electron††††††††††

†††††††††††

Summary:

††††††††††† What is matter

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space

††††††††††††††††††††††† Matter is composed of atoms

††††††††††† Models of the Atom

††††††††††††††††††† Democritus introduced ideas of the atom

Lavoisier showed matter is neither created nor destroyed, just changed

Daltons ideas led to the atomic theory of matter

Thomson discovered the electron

Rutherford discovered protons exist in the nucleus

Chadwick discovered the neutron

Improving the Atomic Model

††††††††† Niels Bohr suggested electrons move in energy levels

††††††††††† More recent physicists introduced the idea of the electron cloud and were able to break down protons and neutrons into smaller particles called quarks

†††††††††††

2. The Simplest Matter

††††††† Element†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† atomic mass††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††††† Atomic number††††††††††††††††††††††† metal

††††††††††† Isotope††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† nonmetal†††††††††

††††††††††† Mass number†††††††††††††††††††††††††† metalloid

 

Summary

†††††††† The Elements

††††††††††††††††††† An element is matter made of only one type of atom

††††††††††††††††††††††† Some elements occur naturally on earth.

Synthetic elements are made in nuclear reactions in particle accelerators

Elements are divided into three categories based on certain properties††††††††

††††††††† The Periodic Table

The periodic table arranges and displays all known elements in an orderly way

Each element has a chemical symbol

††††††††† Identifying Characteristics

Each element has a unique number of protons, called the atomic mass number

Isotopes of an element are important when determining the atomic mass of an element

†††††††††††

3. Compounds & Mixtures

††††††††††† Substance

††††††††††† Compound

††††††††††† Mixture

 

Summary

†††††††† Substances

††††††††††††††††††† A substance can be either an element or a compound

††††††††††††††††††††††† A compound contains more than one kind of element bonded together

A chemical formula shows which elements and how many atoms of each make up a compound

††††††††† Mixtures

††††††††††††††††††† A mixture contains substances that are not chemically bonded together

There are many ways to separate mixtures, based on their physical properties

Homogeneous mixtures are those that are the same throughout. These types of mixtures can be solids, liquids, or gases.

Heterogeneous mixtures have larger parts that are different from each other

 

 

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